In preparing to set up a new SQL Server 2012 AlwaysOn cluster, I ran into an issue when I unintentionally installed Windows Server 2012 Datacenter in Core mode (no GUI). This is an easy problem to fix if your systems have unfettered Internet access.
However, my systems did not have Internet access. After a great deal of searching, I found the following blog post which actually fixed my issue.
Switch from Windows 2012 Core to GUI mode…hands on!
Many thanks to the p0w3rsh3ll blog!
For Windows Server 2012 Datacenter:
Install-WindowsFeature Server-Gui-Mgmt-Infra,Server-Gui-Shell -Source:wim:D:\Sources\install.wim:4 -Restart:$false
For Windows Server 2012 Standard:
Install-WindowsFeature Server-Gui-Mgmt-Infra,Server-Gui-Shell -Source:wim:D:\Sources\install.wim:2 -Restart:$false